UEFI BIOS Flow Chart

This illustration reveals the boot sequence of legacy BIOS and UEFI BIOS. Legacy BIOS (in deep red) lacks some of the safeguards built into the UEFI BIOS, such as, Trusted Boot. Additionally, legacy BIOS operates in 16-bit mode while UEFI BIOS operates in 64-bit mode making UEFI BIOS much faster. UEFI BIOS has the option of loading an alternate operating system but accomplishing this is well beyond the experience of most PC users.



CPUs and Motherboard sockets & Chipsets...

CPU Architecture Sandy Bridge Ivy Bridge Haswell Haswell-E Broadwell Skylake Cannonlake
Die Process in nanometers 32nm 22nm 22nm 22nm 14nm 14NM 10NM
Processor Cores 4 4 4 6 to 8 4+ 4+ Unknown at this time
Chipset Cougar Point
"6 Series"

Panther Point
"7 Series"

Lynx Point
"8 Series"


Wildcat Point
"9 Series"
Sunrise Point
"100 Series"
Motherboard socket LGA 1155 LGA 1155 LGA 1150 LGA 2011-3 LGA 1150 LGA 1151  

Digital Terminology...

Table of digital storage, transmission measurements and cycles:

Single binary unit (0 or 1) = bit

8 bits = 1 byte

1,024 bytes = 1 kilobyte (KB)

1,024 kilobytes = 1 megabyte (MB)

1,024 megabytes = I gigabyte (GB)

1,024 gigabytes = 1 terabyte (TB)

Bits and Bytes are also transferred into, within and out of computer systems:

Data transfer unit = gigabits per second (Gbps or Gbit/s or Gb/s), 1028 megabits = 1 gigabit,

The SATA III hard drive has a data transfer rate of: 6Gb/s = 750 MB/s

1MB = one megabyte. 1Mb = one megabit. 1Mb = 0.125 MB (8 x 0.125 = 1)

A SSD (Solid State Drive) transfer rate: 32Gb/s

Internet bandwidth in USA: Average = Download: 31.9Mb/s, Upload: 9.6Mb/s

South Korea is planning a fast 10Gb/s Internet infrastructure. This will transfer 1GB in 0.8 seconds.

One gigabyte (GB) = 8 gigabits (Gb) or (Gbit)

4G Internet service: Peak download 1Gb/s, Peak upload 500Mb/s

Ethernet data transfer rate (possible): 10Mb/s original; 100Mb/s Fast Ethernet

Do not confuse Mb with MB; 8 megabits per second (Mb/s) = 1 megabyte per second (MB/s)

Megatransfers per second MT/s and gigatransfers per second GT/s are data transfer sample rates

Hz stands for Cycles Per Second (such as CPU clock cycles) named after Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894)

Kilohertz KHz is = 1000 cycles per second – kilo is thousand (from the Greek “thousand”)

Megahertz MHz is = 1,000,000 cycles per second – mega is million (from the Greek “great”)

Gigahertz GHz is = 1,000,000,000 cycles per second – giga is billion (from the Greek “giant”)

Copyright Ed Ruth 2015.

The strange world of Personal Computer (PC) dimensions. In years past, PC users lived in caves and hunted mammoth. They also used 5.25 inch floppy disks. The 5.25 inch dimension refers to the diameter of the media. The, now obsolete, 5.25 inch floppy disks were made from a square plastic sleeve with a 5.25 inch diameter plastic disk inside that was coated with a variant of iron oxide to make it ferromagnetic. The disk was able to record digital information from a read/write head as it spun around after being inserted into the computer. This was a technological hop from the “tape recorder” of those same ancient times. A slot in early PCs and, later, a read/write housing within a PC case’s 5.25 inch “bay,” received the floppy disk with a resounding “clunk.” The disk also made a funny groaning sound as it went to work circa 1983.

The actual width of the 5.25 inch bay is 5.75 inches, with a depth of 8 inches and a height of 1.625 inches, minimally. So a “5.25 bay” is really a 5.75 inch wide slot in the front panel of a PC. The 5.25 inch bay was once called a “half-height” bay because, in its original format, it was twice as tall. A modern computer case will have two or more 5.25 inch bays to accommodate optical drives (Blu-ray or DVD player/writer) or a host of other gadgets as well as hard drive or SSD (Solid State Drive) housings.

As early PC users began to frequent fast food outlets and gave up their spears, they adopted the smaller 3.5 inch floppy “diskette” which was a variant of the 5.25 inch floppy. Once again, the 3.5 inches refers to the diameter of the media. The 3.5 inch floppy had a rigid plastic case and didn’t flop anymore. It was smaller than its older brother but held about the same amount of data, 1.44MB. This floppy had a read/write housing that was 4 inches wide and often found a home in a PC’s dedicated 3.5 inch bay. A 3.5 inch bay is actually 4 inches wide, 5.75 inches deep and 1 inch in height, minimally. Diskettes housings were also mounted within a 5.25 inch bay. Diskettes are rarely seen today but read/write mechanisms can be obtained in USB format for the use of data archaeologists.

However, 3.5 inch hard drives (once again the 3.5 inch refers to the diameter of the ferromagnetic platter within the drive as the hard disk is actually 4 inches wide) also fit within a 3.5 inch floppy bay or within a 5.25 inch bay if mounting rails are screwed onto the sides of the hard drive, or alternative techniques are employed, to create an assembly wide enough to be secured within the bay by screws or clasps. The 5.25 inch PC bay is still very useful but most frequently houses optical drives. In sum, a 3.5 inch bay is actually 4 inches wide and a 5.25 inch bay is actually 5.75 inches wide. Also, the design of newer stuff is often made from the design of older stuff.

The book "Building Your Own High Performance Computer - The Big Book of Computer Components and Assembly, is available at: Amazon Kindle

Copyright 2014 Ed Ruth